Semiconductor production process

January 3, 2022
Key Business Segments Major

Integrated circuits (IC, LSI) are built into various different kinds of electronic devices, including PCs, cell phones, cars and household appliances. The level of circuit integration and performance for ICs is projected to double every 18 months, and according to the road map laid out for the semiconductor industry, the DRAM half pitch (half the width of 1st metal line) for circuit patterns will progressively shrink from 57 nm (one nanometer is one billionth of a meter) in 2008 to 32 nm in 2013.
The substrate for integrated circuits is a wafer made of highly pure single crystal silicon. Wafers 300 mm in size that yield a greater number of chips per wafer are the most commonly used.


The silicon wafers forming the base of the semiconductor are cleaned. Even slight contamination of a wafer will cause defects in the circuit. Therefore, chemical agents are used to remove all contamination, from ultra-fine particles to minute amounts of organic or metallic residues generated in the production process, or unwanted natural oxide layers generated due to exposure to air.

● Wet Station FC-3100
● Single Wafer Cleaning System SU-3100、SU-3200

Film Deposition

Thin film layers of silicon oxide, aluminum and other metals that will become the circuit materials are formed on the wafer.
There are a variety of ways to form these thin films, including "sputtering", in which a target material, such as aluminum or other metal, is bombarded with ions, which knocks off atoms and molecules that are then deposited on the wafer surface, "electrodeposition", which is used to form copper wire layers (copper interconnect), chemical vapor deposition (CVD), in which special gases are mixed to cause a chemical reaction that forms a vapor containing the desired material, and then the mole-cules generated in the reaction are deposited onto the wafer surface to form a film, and thermal oxidation, in which the wafer is heated to form a silicon oxide film on the wafer surface.

Post-deposition Cleaning

Minute particles adhering to the wafer after the film deposition are removed using brushes or Nanospray with deionized water, or other physical cleaning methods.

● Spin Scrubber SS-3100、SS-3200
● Single Wafer Cleaning System SU-3100、SU-3200

Resist Coating

The wafer surface is coated with resist (photosensitive chemical). Then the wafer is spun, causing a uniform layer of resist to be formed on the wafer surface by centrifugal force.

● Coat/Develop Track SOKUDO DUO、RF3S、60EX/80EX


The wafer is exposed using short wavelength deep ultraviolet radiation projected through a mask on which the circuit pattern has been formed. Only the areas of the resist layer that are exposed to the light undergo a structural change, thereby transferring the pattern to the wafer. There are a variety of exposure units, including steppers, which expose several chips at a time, and scanners, which expose the wafer using a slit through which light is projected onto the wafer.
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