During the growth process, the crucible slowly dissolves Oxygen into the melt that is incorporated into the final crystal in typical concentrations of around 25ppma. Intentional additions of dopants control the resistivity distribution of the final crystal. In addition to pull speed and heat transfer at the solid-liquid interface, heat dissipation during crystal cooling strongly determines microscopic defect characteristics in the final crystal. For modern CZ pulling systems, those variables can be accurately predicted by numerical simulations which allow designing the geometrical and thermal configuration of the CZ puller to the desired outcome of the crystals. Once the growth process is complete, the crystal is cooled inside the furnace for up to 7 hours. This gradual cooling allows the crystal lattice to stabilize and makes handling easier before transport to the next operation. For some applications, it is important to have even lower concentrations of impurity atoms (eg. Oxygen) than what can be achieved by CZ crystal growth. In this case, Float Zone Crystal Growth is used. In this process the end of a long polysilicon rod is locally melted and brought in contact with a monocrystalline Silicon seed. The melted zone slowly migrates through the poly rod leaving behind a final uniform crystal.
Ingots coming from crystal growing are slightly over-sized in diameter and typically not round. Hence, a machine employing a grindwheel shapes the ingot to the precision needed for wafer diameter control. Other grinding wheels are then used to carve a characteristic notch or a flat in order to define the proper orientation of the future wafer versus a particular crystallographic axis.